By Albrecht Hesse, Reto Neiger
The color instruction manual bargains with all features of urolithiasis in canine, cats, rabbits and guinea pigs—from aetiology and pathogenesis to prognosis, remedy and the prevention of illness recurrence. The authors introduce the reader to remedy protocols built from their very own learn and adventure, and comprise overseas state of the art wisdom of the sickness. themes coated within the color instruction manual comprise epidemiology, hazards in better half animal husbandry, species-specific alterations, breed inclinations, genetic motives, proper anatomical issues, medical prognosis, stone composition, medical pathology and therapy protocols. the color instruction manual is a compact, broad ranging illustrated consultant to facing urinary stones in small animals, of price to veterinarians in education and perform.
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Extra resources for A Colour Handbook of Urinary Stones in Small Animal Medicine
5 Norway 32 CHAPTER 1 Overview of urinary stones 21 Request form r---- Analysis of animal urinary calculi with infrared (IR) spectroscopy Sender (Please use capital letters or stamp) Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Albrecht Hesse Centre for Analysis of Urinary Calculi, Bonn Theaterplatz 14 ~ D - 53177 Bonn Tel: +492289573716, Fax: +49 228 9573721 ~ J ~ Date received: I I Ref no of IR lab: I Please do not send urine or blood samples! To be completed by sender: Name or registration number of animal: I I Previous treatment o Diet o Drug for chemolysis, which one?
The monobasic dihydrogen phosphate anion (H 2 P0 4 -) is present in acidic urine, and forms very soluble salts. As the pH increases, mono hydrogen phosphate anions (HP0 4 2-) create less soluble calcium salts in weakly acidic urine. However, sufficient free phosphate ions (PO 4 3-) are only available at alkaline pH values, allowing the occurrence of struvite stones. The conditions required for the formation of struvite crystals include sufficient magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate concentrations in the urine, but the decisive factor is an alkaline urine pH (46).
A further complication is obstruction of the urethra if a large stone remains stuck. ) In animals with pre existing urinar y tract infection, ante grade voiding urohydropropulsion is indicated only foll owing a cost- benefit analysis, since it can easily lead to pyelonephritis. Such animals must always be treated with an appropriate antibiotic prior to the procedure. Lithotripsy In human medicine, lithotripsy (or stone fragmentation ) is an established treatment for symptomatic kidney and ureter stones , but there are few reports of it in vete rinary medicine.
A Colour Handbook of Urinary Stones in Small Animal Medicine by Albrecht Hesse, Reto Neiger