By Len Doyal
Rejecting stylish subjectivist and cultural relativist methods, this crucial e-book argues that humans have common and target wishes for overall healthiness and autonomy and a correct to their optimum pride. The authors increase a approach of social symptoms to teach what such optimization may suggest in perform and verify the documents of a variety of built and underdeveloped economies in assembly their electorate' wishes
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Additional info for A Theory of Human Need
The interdependence of efficiency and distribution also interferes with attempts to separate out measures of the former from judgements about the latter. Furthermore. 'prisoners' dilemma' problems question the desirability of the free market as a choice condition. Individuals may prefer gun control to owning a gun, yet in the absence of the former express a market preference for the latter (Penz, 1986, ch. 3). Penz, on whose analysis we have primarily relied here, draws two conclusions from this catalogue of problems and inconsistencies.
In short, the grammar of statements about human need which do not refer to drives is one of instrumentality. Some other goal Y (either believed to be universalisable or not) must always be in the background of a specific need X being regarded as a goal in its own right. Were this not the case, it would be impossible to identify the reason why the goal is identified as a need and why we believe it to be worth pursuing. To understand, for example, what it means to call physical warmth or a meal a need.
But do the latter have to entail anything like a notion of need? Barry. and many others espousing this distinction, think not. They reject the idea that this justifies belief in the existence of standards of evaluation which are common to all forms of life. Provided that some ideals are embraced and differentiated from wants then rational actions can still be differentiated from irrational mistakes. The difficulty with this argument is that it is unable to account for why some mistakes can be seen to have the same objective 26 Relatirism and the Problem of Human Need consequences irrespective of the culture and value system in which they are made.
A Theory of Human Need by Len Doyal