New PDF release: Applications of Electrochemistry and Nanotechnology in

By Dr. A. Heiskanen, Professor J. Emnéus (auth.), Noam Eliaz (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1461403464

ISBN-13: 9781461403463

Topics in quantity fifty two include:

· tracking of mobile dynamics with electrochemical detection techniques

· primary experiences of lengthy- and short-range electron alternate mechanisms among electrodes and proteins

· Microbial gas phone scalability and functions in robotics

· Electrochemical coating of clinical implants

· Electrochemical thoughts for acquiring biofunctional materials

· training and homes of bioactive metals ready by way of floor modification

From stories of past volumes:

“This long-standing sequence keeps its culture of supplying top of the range stories of verified and rising topic components, including the fewer universal elements of electrochemical science... [and]... merits a spot in electrochemistry libraries and may turn out helpful to electrochemists and similar workers.”

Chemistry and Industry

“Extremely well-referenced and extremely readable.... continues the final excessive criteria of the series.”

Journal of the yankee Chemical Society

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Extra resources for Applications of Electrochemistry and Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine I

Sample text

Upon reaching the gap between two neurons, the electrical mode of signal propagation represented by ionic current is converted into the chemical mode, which is functional in the finite gap, the synaptic cleft, of about 100 nm119 between the two neurons. When a propagating action potential reaches the synapse, it triggers opening of Ca2+ ion channels, increasing the Ca2+ ion concentration in 36 A. Heiskanen and J. Emnéus the microenvironment near the Ca2+ ion channels of the presynaptic neuron to concentrations that may be 1000 times higher than the normal level of about 100 nM.

In order for a compound to be classified as a neurotransmitter, it has to be secreted in the Ca2+ ion dependent manner from the presynaptic cells, and the postsynaptic cell must have specialized receptors, to which this compound functions as a ligand. 18 Two classes of postsynaptic receptors are found in neurons: (a) ion channels that facilitate fast responses, such as excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, and (b) GPCRs that facilitate slower signals with longer duration. Neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, glutamate, glycin and GABA may bind to and activate both types of receptors,123 whereas DA, NE and E, exclusively bind and activate GPCRs,121 which then via a cascade of intracellular reactions modulate the function of a certain type of ion channel.

Determination of NQO1 activity in general,77 the screening of NQO1 substrates suitable as chemotherapeutic drugs,74 or the screening of compounds inducing expression of NQO1, have become significant in pharmacology. Aside from up-regulated NQO1 gene expression, cancer cells have also shown an up-regulated function of the GP78 as a consequence of depressed vascularization, and hence lack of oxygen. This results in increased ATP production through the GP instead of ATP synthesis in the mitochondria.

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Applications of Electrochemistry and Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine I by Dr. A. Heiskanen, Professor J. Emnéus (auth.), Noam Eliaz (eds.)

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